Gathering and analyzing business-related information. It provides a deeper understanding of how companies can look at globalization as part of their strategic and operational plans. The assignment has two parts: one focused on information research and analysis, and the other is on applied analytics w/ 525 summary requirement.

1) Update the Excel form with the statistical requirements

2) add a 525 word summary (Word APA formatted document attached).

Thank you!

# Category: Statistics

Additional statistical analysis needs to be updated on the excel spreadsheet and a word paper summary addressing the questions. I have included the APA word shell as a summary. The word count is 750 words minimum and excel spreadsheet updated with additional formulas.

Write two paragraphs in part 2 based on the statistics in the attached pictures

Comments from Customer

Discipline: Spss

Customer is an international student. Please, provide a regular grammatically correct, well-structured paper according to the instructions and academic context provided, written with simple sentence structures and easy vocabulary (or shortly, use simple English).

Assignment Scenario

You are overseeing a mentoring program for youth who have been identified as being at risk and you want to complete a program evaluation to measure the impact on youth who participate. You also want to consider whether variables such as sex and race/ethnicity factor into the results.

Assignment Instructions

In the Unit 2 Dataset 1 given in the resources, find baseline data for the youth who have entered the program. From this data, identify all of the variables represented and input the data into an Excel file. Save the file as a “comma separated values” (.csv) file and open this .csv file in JASP. Make sure to modify the data types of each variable to the correct scale of measurement (nominal, ordinal, or scale).

Refer to the JASP Tutorial Video: Modifying Data Types (Nominal, Ordinal Scale), given in the resources.

Assignment Scenario

You are evaluating the mental health services provided to children by your agency. The agency provides trauma-informed counseling services to children and youth, ages 5–18. The agency’s goal is to have a relatively equal distribution of children and youth, in terms of ages, who seek services.

You will complete a frequency distribution of the number and ages of children who accessed services within your community agency over the past month. You will need to provide a histogram and summary of your analysis. Consider the implications of the findings as you plan for next year’s programming.

Assignment Instructions

Using the Unit 2 Dataset 2 given in the resources, respond to the following prompts:

Open the Unit 2 Dataset 2 file (given in the resources) in JASP.

Develop a histogram to demonstrate the number of children and their ages. Refer to the JASP Tutorial Video: Histograms and Pie Charts, given in the resources.

Consider that the main goal for using frequency distribution is to simplify large datasets. Graphs provide us with a tool to interpret the data. Addressing the prompts below, provide a brief narrative summary that you would provide to the Ray Foundation to describe the age of children and frequency of services used.

Interpret the data displayed in the histogram output graphs you created.

What trends do you see in the usage of mental health services?

How do these trends affect your planning for the program?

What would be your next steps if you wanted to see a representation of all age groups at your agency?

## Bowie State University

Bowie State University

Department of Accounting, Finance, and Economics

BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS STATISTICS – Fall 2022

Research Project

Testing Difference in Alcohol Content Between American and European Beers

Status: Required

Project Goals

The main goal of this project is to help students to build skills in statistical analysis by applying the descriptive statistics tools to estimate mean Alcohol By Volume (ABV) of the American and Foreign Beers produced in the U.S., and then use those estimates and the inferential statistics to test the existence of ABV differentials between the two groups of beer. Students are expected to write their final research report which must describe the population of interest to the analysis, the data collection procedure, the implementation of the statistical procedure to estimate the population parameters (mean ABV differentials) using the sample data, the interpretation of the results, and the policy recommendations.

Learning objectives

Upon completing this research project, the student will be able to:

– Collect and use data in the decision-making process;

– Calculate descriptive statistics;

– Use the Central Limit Theorem to identify the probability distributions of statistics;

– Conduct statistical inference to determine behaviors of population parameters using sample data;

– Interpret the results of analysis; and

– Make policy recommendations

Problem Statement

Different types of beers have different ingredients, flavors, and alcohol amounts. Those differences exist between American-brewed beer and European beer. Gerard McGovern, Partner & Master Brewer at Irish Yankee Beer Co, Dublin/NYC recognizes those differences. According to him, European beer used to be stronger going back 20 or 30 years. While the ABV in American beer used to be between 3.6 to 4.0%, European beers had ABV between 5 and 10%. In recent years, however, the U.S. has been moving the higher alcohol content to smoothen and balance the expensive flavors that result in higher sale price of American beer.

Given all developments described above, is there any empirical evidence to support that European beers are stronger than American beers?

Project Description

Suppose you are an independent economist who has been hired to help American beers to compete with European beers by determining whether or not the two groups of beers are comparable in term of their ABV. European beers are more attractive due to their ABV. Eliminating their ABV advantage would allow beers to compete on other grounds including ingredients, flavors, and others.

To complete your project, you will use secondary; Craft Beers Dataset – 2017 (https://www.kaggle.com/nickhould/craft-cans) to estimate the difference in ABV between American and European beers. You will also have to test the hypothesis of no difference in ABV between the two groups of beers.

Steps for conducting the statistical analysis are described below.

1. Data collection and visualization

For this project, you will use two samples. The first sample will include only American beers and can be selected from the dataset described above. In contrast, the second sample will include only European beers and can be selected from the same dataset. Plot the two datasets in the same chart (visualization) to detect whether or not wage differences exist between the two groups. The visualizations should be presented using Excel or SPSS visualizations.

2. Estimation of the mean ABV and of its variance and standard deviation

This step consists of estimating the mean ABV and the variance and standard deviation for each of the two groups. Remember, the standard deviation is the square root of the variance.

3. Point and interval estimation of ABV differential between the two groups

The estimates of mean ABV and of standard deviation as well as the sample sizes are the inputs needed to calculate point estimate and the interval estimation of ABV differential (use the confidence level of your choice, preferably between 95% and 99%). If the sample size of each group is 30 or more, assume that the standard deviation from the sample is the same as the population standard deviation and use the Z distribution to construct the confidence interval. But, if the sample size of your group is less than 30, use the t distribution to construct the confidence interval.

Next, reduce the margin of error by 75% and calculate the sample size needed to achieve such target. Finally, reconstruct the confidence interval of ABV differential that would result from such simple sample.

4. Hypothesis testing of the non-existence of ABV difference

In this step, the hypothesis testing procedure will be implemented to test the non-existence of ABV differential. The hypothesis of non-existence of ABV differential will be tested against the alternative hypothesis of existence of ABV differential. This step is crucial since it helps to determine whether or not the observed estimated value of ABV differential is due to the random errors. Choose the confidence level between 95% and 99% to conduct your hypothesis testing. Also, follow the same guidelines highlighted in point 3 to determine the type of distribution to be used in hypothesis testing. The hypothesis testing procedure is summarized below.

– Determine the null and alternative hypotheses.

– Choose the significance of level (preferably, set α = 0.05).

– Validate the assumptions of the hypothesis test, identify the appropriate test statistic, and compute its value (compute P-value)

– Using the graphs to determine if you should be conducting a two-sample test of the mean with equal or unequal variances.

– Compare the value of your statistic to the theoretical value (from the statistical Tables)

– Make a decision to reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis

– State the conclusion

5. Interpretation of results

Describe the meaning of your results and how they can be used for policy recommendations.

Project Grading/Evaluation

– This project will be graded out of 100 points and will contribute 10% to your final grade.

– The key success factor for this project is to use the correct and cleaned data and demonstrate a systematic approach to data analysis by using the appropriate tools.

– This project should be completed in Excel or SPSS.

– Your paper must be typed and multiple line-space (at 1.15). It must contain an introduction, a section describing your methodology, a data analysis section and a conclusion section that summarizes the results of your analysis. The formulas used should be shown in detail, and the calculations shown clearly. All cited work and source of information must be listed in the reference list.

– The log on what you have been assigned to do and what you have accomplished must be kept.

– The project will be evaluated using a rubric. Please make sure you project does not have any significant discrepancies.

Format

Each project will be 5 pages maximum (appendix not included) and must be written using the following guidelines and contents:

– Title page (Include project title and your name)

– Introduction: Problem, purpose and justification of the study

– Methodology

– Data analysis

– Interpretation of results

– Findings and conclusion.

– Appendices: Tables, Figures. Certificate of completion-Statistics 191,

– References

Font must be Time New Roman (or Calibri) and Font size must be 12. The line spacing must be multiple at 1.15. The spacing before must be 6 pt and the spacing after must be 6 pt.

The project must be written using the MLA style

1. Create Your Dataset:

o Select a Population of Interest: The possibilities are endless. You could study sports teams, countries/states/counties, musical artists/albums, political figures, celebrities, CEOs, streaming services, national parks, etc. So long as you can find a variety of information about each observation using the Internet, you can study it.

o If Needed, Choose a Sampling Method and Select a Sample: Be specific about your population and decide whether you can study the whole population or if you’ll need to draw a sample. For example, if you are only interested in studying NFL quarterbacks who played in a regular-season game during the 2021 season, you might be able to create a dataset with of the whole population. If however, you are interested in all NFL quarterbacks who have ever played, you’ll need a way of selecting a sample (e.g., random sampling).

o Choose Variables to Collect: Whatever you choose to study, you’ll collect a variety of pieces of data about each. For example, if you were composing a dataset of NFL quarterbacks, you could record a variety of continuous (e.g., annual salary, average passing yards) and categorical (e.g., whether they are right- or left-handed) variables about each quarterback. Think ahead about what type of analyses you’d like to be able to perform. For example, if you want to look for correlations, you’ll need continuous variables. If you want to compare groups, you’ll need categorical variables that can be used for grouping. Locate the data using the Internet and organize it into a dataset using Microsoft Excel.

o Create a Codebook: Following the instructions in the tutorial and using appropriate statistical vocabulary, create a codebook describing each variable in your dataset. Include this as an appendix in your final deliverable for reference.

o Save your Dataset: Remember, you can’t save multiple worksheets using the comma separated values (.csv) file format. As such, save your dataset as a .csv file and also save your codebook in a separate, Excel workbook. Include your dataset as an appendix in your final deliverable.

2. Perform the Analysis using JASP: You’ll need to include your full set of JASP outputs as an appendix for your final deliverable. Be sure to save all JASP outputs as you perform them.

o Descriptive Statistics: Fully analyze the descriptive properties of your dataset. Produce frequency/descriptive statistics for each variable and look at the shape/spread/skew of the data. Investigate possible outliers.

o Inferential Statistics: Chapter 16 of your textbook reviews how to select analyses appropriate to the variables and describe the results of those findings. Use that chapter to select analyses appropriate to your research questions and variables. Perform inferential analyses using JASP and interpret the p-values in light of your research question and/or predictions.

3. Prepare Your Report: Using Microsoft Word, create a report of your project that includes the following sections.

1. Introduction: Summarizes the scope and purpose of your project. Explain why you chose the project and what you hope to learn from the data you compiled. Be sure to specify your main research questions. Summarize and cite the article you selected for the Week 5 Deliverable and use it to contextualize your topic.

2. Description of Sample & Data: Describe the sample and/or population studied. In detail, explain the rationale and sampling method used to obtain the data. Using accurate statistical vocabulary, describe each variable studied and a rationale for why it was included. Include an APA-formatted in-text citation and reference for each source (e.g., website, agency) from which data was obtained.

3. Descriptive Analysis: Include a descriptive statistics section similar to the descriptive statistics report you prepared during Week 3 but also integrating more recent concepts (e.g., confidence intervals, boxplots/outliers). Provide both detailed verbal interpretations and data visualizations to familiarize your reader with the dataset.

4. Inferential Analysis: Include an inferential statistics section reporting interesting and/or significant findings from your data. For each inferential analysis you perform, include the following: your predictions/hypotheses and rationale for your predictions, a justification of the appropriateness of the statistical test based on the characteristics of the variables analyzed and research question being tested, specifics of the analysis performed and variables involved (e.g., which variables were treated as outcomes/predictors), and verbal interpretation of results including applicable statistics. If possible, also include a data visualization of your findings (e.g., bar graph, scatterplot).

5. Discussion: Conclude with a one- to two-paragraph summary of your project with a focus on the findings and their application. Consider possible implications (e.g., for personal decision making or policy) of your project. Remember, your job, as the statistician, is not just to state the statistical findings but to interpret them for your reader. Think critically, as a statistician, when offering interpretations for trends in your data.

6. References & Appendices: At the end of your deliverable, include APA-formatted references to all websites and other resources from which data were obtained as well as any articles referenced. Also, include an appendix section and include your codebook, dataset, and full JASP Outputs. Note, the instructor needs these materials to assess the accuracy of your statistical decision making and verbal interpretations.

Pleas find in the enclosed folder the assignment requirements.

You are required to submit the document file (typed or handwritten) containing the solution via moodle by October 12th at 3:00 p.m. Show in all cases the formulas you used (do not merely copy the final result from your calculator, but show clearly how the result has been obtained).

Please note that if you take pictures of your handwritten notes, they must be submitted as a single pdf file, containing all the pages in order. The filename must contain the surname(s) of the author(s) of the assignment.

Please be advised that a cut-off time has been set for this assignment and late submissions will not be accepted/graded.

calculating the main data from the project comes from this article,

https://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2022/10/05/more-americans-are-joining-the-cashless-economy/ I have completed questions 1 . there are links in the question to take you to the useable tool to get the answers. if not this site will help with the math involved and it does not need a login. https://www.utdanacenter.org/our-work/higher-education/curricular-resources-higher-education/dcmp-data-analysis-tools

I have to come up with a hypothesis in the format of the attached document. It has to be approved by the professor when I turn it in, or it is not acceptable as the final project hypothesis.